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New Pocket Guide from Roco

Monday, February 12, 2018

Newly revised and updated with 82-pages of color drawings and detailed illustrations, Roco's new Pocket Guide features techniques taught in our rescue classes. Made from synthetic paper that is impervious to moisture makes this pocket-sized guide the perfect reference during training or on the scene.

Pocket Guide features: Knots - Rigging - Patient Packaging - Lower/Hauling Systems - Tripod Operations - Low Angle - Pick-off Rescue - High-lines - Confined Spaces and much more.

Reference charts include: Confined Space Types, Suspension Trauma, and Rescue Gear Service Life Chart.

SPECIAL PRICING OF $29.95 THROUGH APRIL 1, 2018 - No Foolin'!

Click here to order your copy today!!

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Roco QUICK DRILL #9 - Belay Systems

Monday, November 30, 2015

Due to their relative simplicity, belay systems rarely see the dedicated training that is often given to the other elements of rescue, such as mechanical advantage or patient packaging. Just because you can rig a 540 Belay Device or tie a Munter Hitch does not necessarily mean you are proficient in their use.

It is important that the belayer can choose the proper belay system for the anticipated load and situation as well as understand the pros and cons of each system. Rescue teams must also be able to properly rig the system, troubleshoot any problems that might arise, catch the load and be able to safely transition from the "catch" to an emergency lowering system, if needed. 

There is a certain degree of finesse and anticipation involved with efficient belaying. It is an important skill only acquired through practice. Allotting more time to belay-specific training will provide payoff in smoother, safer operations during your next rescue.

1. As a team, discuss the belay needs of your environment (type of device or hitch, need for confined space rigging, high-point/low-point usage, one-person/two-person loads, etc.).

2. Divide your team into pairs and have each pair rig a specified device or hitch as a horizontal ground station.

3. While one member operates the device, the other attaches to the working end of the belay line and walks backwards to simulate a moving load. The team member on the line can also simulate a sudden load being applied to the rope at random intervals for the belayer to catch by pulling quickly on the working end of the rope.

4. If using the 540 Belay Device, develop proficiency in releasing a "stuck" load.

5. When using a Munter, work on body/hand position and tying off the Munter with a mule knot and releasing the mule knot while under load.

6. With tandem prusiks, practice converting to a lower system.

7. No matter what device or system, focus on maintaining a steady rate of rope progress through the device, while maintaining the proper amount of slack in the system (maximum 18 inches).

8. Have members switch positions and/or devices as they work on proficiency.

9. If time and training space allow, rig simple lower/haul scenarios where the emphasis will be on belay practice. In these scenarios, focus on the following:
       • Communication between the Rescue Master and the Belayer.
       • Maintaining the appropriate amount of slack in the belay system (no more than 18 inches).

Efficient belay skills are often taken for granted. Be sure to master the use of these critical, lifesaving systems!

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Technical Rescue Incident Preparedness: Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment

Wednesday, July 08, 2015

Reported by James Breen, Special Projects Manager for Roco Rescue, Inc.

Whether you’re a relatively new or a well-established Technical Search and Rescue (TSAR) organization, following an established Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment process is a great way to ensure you’re prepared for the “Big One."

The “Big One” is that incident where you’re called upon to deliver on the organizational investment of having a TSAR capability. A great deal of organizational time, money, and effort is invested in developing, maintaining, and deploying a Rescue Team. Plant Administrators, Fire Chiefs, and elected officials (private board members or public officials) want to see a return on that investment when their rescue service is called into action to save a life.  

The purpose of this article is to assist the Rescue Team Leader (RTL) and aspiring RTL (because we should always be developing our replacement) in establishing a Rescue Team, developing a new TSAR capability, or ensuring an established Rescue Team is adequately prepared for the “Big One."

Firstly, if there is a potential for a TSAR incident to occur within your jurisdiction, NFPA 1670 requires the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) to address a number of “General Requirements” found in Chapter 4. The review and completion of these requirements are usually a function of the Rescue Team Leader along with key management personnel who authorize, budget, schedule, and equip the Rescue Team.

The format of Chapter 4 is useful for all Rescue Teams, whether newly formed or long established. It is an excellent tool for ensuring some of the foundational aspects of preparedness and organizational structure are (or have been) properly established.  Most “senior rescuers” (not those on Medicare but those that have the respect, time, and experience that makes them leaders in technical rescue) will tell you that the TSAR incident potential, including their hazards and risks, change as industrial processes are updated, installed, or eliminated. 

Key to all emergency response success is planning and preparation. However, incident preparation should be driven by the types of emergency incidents that have a potential for occurring within a given jurisdiction. This is the starting point for determining rescue capabilities, SOP/SOG’s, staffing, training, and equipment. 

The Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment is one method for assessing incident potential. NFPA defines:

•  Hazard Identification - The process of identifying situations or conditions that have the potential to cause injury to people, damage to property, or damage to the environment. 

•  Risk Assessment - An assessment of the likelihood, vulnerability, and magnitude of incidents that could result from the exposure to hazards. 

This process identifies the possibility of conducting TSAR operations within a jurisdiction by evaluating environmental, physical, social, and cultural factors that influence the scope, frequency and magnitude of a potential TSAR incident. It also addresses the impact the incident has on the AHJ to respond and conduct operations while minimizing threats to rescuers (NPFA 1670, 4.2.1 and 4.2.2). The standard lists a number of scientific methodologies in its annex but in the spirit of keeping it, we’ll approach this process using a Preliminary Checklist. (See Sample Checklist.)

Once completed, the checklist may have entries that require further analysis, identify a need to develop or expand a capability, or require entering into an agreement with an external resource. 

This checklist is for day-to-day incident responses under predictable jurisdictional response conditions and should not be used for disaster scenarios where large scale regional and federal resources will be required to mitigate the incident. These scenarios should be addressed through Emergency Response Plans. 

Most fire departments and other emergency response organizations want to maintain a response capability that match potential incidents in order to be operationally effective, provide for rescuer safety, and have positive incident outcomes.  

A Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment is an excellent way to evaluate your organization’s preparedness level for technical rescue incidents based the potential for one to occur; it also aids in the development of specific capability. 

About the Author: James (Jim) Breen is Special Projects Manager for Roco Rescue where he handles a wide variety of projects and provides program support, while still engaging in instructional services. Jim previously served for over 23 years with the Albuquerque Fire Department and retired as the agency's Fire Chief in 2013. He previously had served as a Battalion Commander for the city’s busiest battalion, and has extensive experience in Incident Command and Heavy Rescue Operations. He is a former USAF Pararescueman and a Rescue Squad Manager and Task Force Leader with NMTF-1 where he was deployed to several national disasters.

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Roco QUICK DRILL #5 - Building Complete Rescue Systems

Thursday, October 16, 2014

Due to time restraints in refresher training, oftentimes individual team members may only get to build a portion of a rescue system – for example, setting up a mainline or performing patient packaging. In order to have maximum team efficiency, it is important to keep all team members proficient in all aspects of the rescue operation.

1. Lay out enough equipment to build a mainline and a safety line system and for a particular type of packaging. Describe which system is to be used and how the patient will be packaged (i.e. vertical stokes raise, or horizontal SKED lower with attendant).

2. Identify what will be used as anchors. If working in a classroom or apparatus floor, a chair leg could be designated as bombproof or substantial anchor depending on the rigging the team member is being asked to do. If you are in the field, use whatever anchors are available.

3. Assign a team member to construct or rig the entire system on their own, including packaging the patient.

This drill allows a Team Leader to identify potential weaknesses in individual performance skills, while improving the team member's understanding of how the systems work. The knowledge gained will also help in planning future training sessions to correct any deficiencies. For the individual team member, this drill will reinforce all aspects of putting systems together and identifying weak points or areas of confusion that need to be corrected.    

 

 

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Can I Use a Crane as Part of my Rescue Plan?

Thursday, October 02, 2014

One question that is often asked, "Can I use a crane as part of my rescue plan?"

With the exception of positioning the load attachment point of a crane for a high-point anchor, or using a properly rated “personnel basket” to move rescuers and victims, the answer is typically “no” – except in very rare and unique circumstances. The justification for using a crane to move personnel, even for the purposes of rescue, is very limited. Be sure you have a clear understanding of the guidelines and precautions.

Both OSHA General Industry and Construction Standards severely limit the use of cranes to move personnel, and prescribe the proper safety measures for these operations.


Using a crane for rescue is not a carte blanche exception to the requirements of these standards unless very specific criteria are met. OSHA requires the use of personnel platforms when moving personnel with a crane. Personnel platforms that are suspended from the load line and used in construction are covered by 29 CFR 1926.1501(g). There is no specific provision in the General Industry standards, so the applicable standard is 1910.180(h)(3)(v). This provision specifically prohibits hoisting, lowering, swinging, or traveling while anyone is on the load or hook.

OSHA has determined, however, that when the use of a conventional means of access to any elevated worksite would be impossible or more hazardous, a violation of 1910.180(h)(3)(v) will be treated as “de minimis” if the employer complies with the personnel platform provisions set forth in 1926.1501(g)(3), (4), (5), (6), (7), and (8).

Even the use of a personnel platform is restricted. OSHA prohibits hoisting personnel by crane or derrick except when no safe alternative is possible. OSHA has determined that hoisting with crane or derrick-suspended personnel platforms constitutes a significant hazard to employees. Therefore, the hoisting of personnel is not permitted unless conventional means of transporting employees are not feasible. Or, unless conventional means present greater hazards (regardless if the operation is for planned work activities or for rescue). Where conventional means would not be considered safe, personnel hoisting operations meeting the terms of this standard would be authorized. OSHA stresses that employee safety, not practicality or convenience, must be the basis for the employer's choice of this method.

It’s important to consider, however, that in some instances such as when entering permit-required confined spaces, OSHA specifically requires rescue capabilities. In others, the general duty to protect an employee from workplace hazards would require rescue capabilities. Consequently, being “unprepared” for rescue would not be considered a legitimate basis to claim that “moving a victim by crane was the only feasible or safe means of rescue.” This is where the employer must complete written rescue plans (or ensure that their designated rescue service has done so), for permit-required confined space operations and for workers-at-height using fall arrest systems. 

When developing these written rescue plans, it may be determined that there is no other feasible means to provide rescue without increasing the risk to the rescuer(s) and victim(s) other than using a crane to move the human load. These situations would be very rare; thus, requiring very thorough documentation which may include written descriptions and photos of the area as part of the justification for using a crane in rescue operations.

Here’s the key… Simply relying on using a crane to move rescuers and rescue victims without completing rescue plans with very clear justification would not be in compliance with OSHA regulations. It must be demonstrated that the use of a crane was the only feasible means to complete the rescue while not increasing the risk compared to other means. Even then, there is the potential for an OSHA Compliance Officer to determine that there were indeed other feasible and safer means.

In other words, using a crane as part of a rescue plan must have rock solid written justification demonstrating that it is the safest feasible means to provide rescue capability.

On the practical side, however, the use of cranes as “stationary, temporary high-point anchors” can be a tremendous asset to rescuers. It may also be part of a rescue plan for a confined space or a top entry fan plenum, for example. The use of stationary high-point pulleys can allow rescuers to run their systems from the ground. It can also provide the headroom to clear rescuers and packaged patients from the space or an elevated edge.

Of course, security of the attachment of the system to the crane and the ability to “lock-out” any potential movement are a critical part of the preplanning process.

Taking it a step further, where some movement of the crane may be required to do the rescue, extreme caution must be taken! It may require advanced rigging techniques in order to prevent movement of the crane from putting undo stress on the rescue system and its components. Rescuers must also evaluate if the movement would unintentionally “take-in” or “add slack” to the rescue system, which could place the patient in harm’s way.

Consider this, movement of a crane can take place on multiple planes – left-right, boom up-down, boom in-out and cable up-down. If movement must take place, rescuers must evaluate how it might affect the operation of the rescue system.

Of course, one of the most important considerations in using any type of mechanical device is its strength and ability (or inability) to “feel the load.” If the load becomes “hung up” while movement is underway, serious injury to the victim or overpowering of system components can happen almost instantly.

No matter how much experience a crane operator has, when dealing with human loads, there’s no way he can feel if the load becomes entangled – and, most likely, he will not be able to stop before injury or damage occurs. Think of it this way, just as rescuers limit the number of haul team members so they can feel the load, that ability is lost when energized devices are used to do the work.

Applicable OSHA standards only restrict the “movement of personnel” with a crane. The same practical safety considerations that led OSHA to enact these standards should apply to decisions involving the use of cranes for rescue.  For rescuers, a crane is just another tool in the toolbox – one that can serve as temporary, stationary high-point making the rescue operation an easier task.

However, once again, using a crane that will require some movement while the rescue load is suspended would be a “last resort” option! There are just too many potential downfalls and concerns associated with using cranes in rescue. This also applies to fire department aerial ladders, which are essentially the same thing. Rescuers must consider the manufacturer’s recommendation for use, who knows their equipment best. What does the manufacturer say about human loads? And, what about the attachment of human loads to different parts of the crane or aerial?

So, to answer the question, Can I include the use of a crane as part of my written rescue preplan?”

Well, it’s yes and no. The use of any powered load movement will most likely be an OSHA violation, the question is, will it be considered a “de minimis" violation if used during a rescue? Most likely, it will depend on the specifics of the incident. However, you can be sure that OSHA will be looking for justification as to why using a crane in motion was considered to be the least hazardous choice.

Municipal Emergency Responders

This article was primarily directed toward private employers who control permit-required confined spaces and have Authorized Persons working-at-height while using fall arrest systems. When an employer fails to ensure that rescue preplans have been completed, or fails to inform a municipal agency that has agreed to provide rescue service to their facility about the types of rescues they may be summoned to, it places the municipal responders in a very difficult position. If municipal responders have not had the opportunity to complete a rescue plan ahead of time, they will have to do a “real time” size-up once on scene. Due to difficult access, victim condition, and/or available equipment and personnel resources, it may be determined that using a crane to move rescuers and victims is the best course of action. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the employer to ensure that rescue plans are completed ahead of time. Planning before the emergency will go a long way in providing options that may provide fewer risks to all involved.

NOTE: Stay tuned for Part II of this story where we will talk more about the use of aerial fire apparatus as high-point anchors in rescue operations.

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